The worlds of Warhammer & Warhammer 40k are rife with puns, homages, and word play. Some of these are pop culture references like Sly Marbo (anagram of Rambo) or Kruellagh the Vile (Cruella De Vil).
Warhammer 40k also seems to draw from a handful of science fiction sources for inspiration (Tyranids & Alien, Kroot & Predator), and I decided to do the same. I, like many other 40k players, am a big fan of the sci-fi genre, so I thought I'd turn to popular television shows for inspiration for a new crop of Space Marine Chapters.
Sci-fi show: "Firefly's" shadowy villains, the Hands of Blue
Colors: Black, white, and light blue
Concept: The Chapter's home world of Muir orbits a blue star with abnormal properties. Some attribute the sun's peculiar radiation as the cause the abnormally high levels of psychic manifestation in the populace. The Blue Palms regularly cull the weaker psykers (or donate them to the Black Ships when available) and recruit the strongest, leading a much higher than average number of librarians.
Sci-fi show: The Doctor's race from "Doctor Who"
Colors: Dark red & gold
Concept: at one time this chapter was one of the strongest forces within the Segmentum Pacificus. They were known for an ardent adherence to Imperial code and ceremony, occasionally to the point of infighting over particular minutiae of laws. Today they are all but forgotten with only a single apothecary known to be in operation.
Sci-fi show: a set of religious texts from "Battlestar Gallactica"
Colors: White & black
Concept: These marines hold a curious set of beliefs in regards to their forebears. They consider the Primarchs and Emperor as a pantheon of Gods, including those fallen to Chaos. This worship would be considered heretical to the Imperial Cult, so they will go to unreasonable lengths to avoid working alongside those who would take issue with their faith.
Sci-fi show: The Cardassian intelligence agency from "Star Trek DS9"
Colors: Royal purple & sage green
Concept: a number of outside observers have noted that this chapter appears to have filled the niche left by the Night Lords. They are brutally efficient in their intelligence gathering efforts, as well as their wartime endeavors.
Sci-fi show: a ruthless military organization from "Farscape"
Colors: Black & red
Concept: The Peacekeepers were established in the Ultima Segmentum a century prior to the dispersal of te warp storm that revealed the modern Tau to the galaxy. Since the appearance, they have taken it upon themselves to "deter" imperial worlds from joining the burgeoning xenos empire, and making examples of any who do.